Burke, Andrew (1995) Ultracapacitors for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles – Performance Requirements, Status of the Technology, and R&D Needs. Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis, Research Report UCD-ITS-RR-95-23
Projections of the future ultracapacitor technology indicate that the development of units with an energy density of 10-15 Wh/kg and a power density of 3-4 kW/kg can be expected in the near-term (within 5 years) and even higher energy and power densities in the longer term (5-10 years). Carbon electrodes and organic electrolytes (3V cells) appear to offer the best opportunities for achieving high energy density and affordable cost for vehicle applications. Key areas of research and development for increasing the energy density of ultracapacitors are identified. These include the development of carbon materials for electrodes having a specific capacitance of 75-100 F/cm3 and organic electrolytes with resistivities of lower than 30 ohm-cm. Possible synergisms between ultracapacitor, lithium-ion battery, and fuel cell development are indicated as a means of decreasing the time required to commercialize advanced ultracapacitors.